13 Jul 2014

What is osteoporosis and what are the risk factors

Osteoporosis is a condition in which there is weakness of bone strength. Although it is more common among postmenopausal women it can occur in any males and females with risk factors. The most common clinical manifestations are fracture of spine ad hip area, although  fracture can occur at any site. More than 10 million people in USA are affected by this disease but only a small proportion are identified and treated. Osteoporosis is defined as "bone density falls 2.5 standard deviation below the mean for young healthy adults of the same sex that is T score of  - 2.5".

After the age of 70 yrs the chance of hip fracture doubles every 5 yrs. Hip fracture is associated with increased risk of mortality during the year after the surgery.
Spinal fractures are associated with pain in back, bending of vertebral column and loss of height.

Osteoporosis and related fractures are more common in females.
1. Low peak bone mass.
2. Postmenopausal bone loss in women.

One fracture increases the risk of second fracture. For example spinal fracture increases the risk for other spinal fracture and wrist and hip fracture. Wrist fracture increase the risk of spine and hip fracture. Osteoporotic bone is at risk for developing fracture even with minor trauma. Irrespective of circumstances any fracture in people over the age of 50 yrs need evaluation of osteoporosis.

Following are the risk factors for osteoporosis

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