14 Dec 2014

Significance of testing platelet count

What is platelet?
Platelet is a component of blood. When there is bleeding platelet will help to control bleeding. Platelet are produced from bone marrow. Adequate number and normal functioning of platelets are required for control of bleeding. When there is elevation or reduction in platelet count it will lead to various clinical manifestations.
Platelet count
Normal value - 0.15 to 0.4 million.
Platelet count if less than 20000 there is high risk of bleeding.
Low platelet count is called as thrombocytopenia.
High platelet count is called thrombocytosis.
Method of testing
Flow cytometry

Conditions associated with low platelet count 1.Low platelet  count due to decreased  production is seen in 
 Bone marrow suppression by chemotherapeutic agents or drugs ,ethanol
2.Low platelet count due to increased destruction is seen in following sitautions
a.Drugs that decrease platelet count - Clopidogrel, heparin, cephalosporin, quinidine
b.Antibody to platelet - Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP)
c.Infections that reduce platelet count - Dengue fever, viral fever, leptospirosis.
d.Following blood transfusion platelet count may be reducred
e.Cirrhosis and enlarged spleen,
f.DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation)

Increased platelet count is seen in the following conditions
1. Following bleeding
2. Iron deficiency anemia
3. Chronic inflammatory conditions.
4. Following removal of spleen.
5.Myeloproliferative conditions such as polycythemia,essential thrombocytosis,Chronic myeloid luekemia.

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