28 Dec 2014

What are the risk factors for osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is very common in the community and there are certain factors that place the patient at high risk for osteoarthritis. These factors act in two ways
1. They may increase the joint susceptibility to development of  osteoarthritis.
2. They increase the load on the joint
3. Combination of above mechanism
Following are the risk factors for osteoarthritis.
1. Age is the most potent risk factor for osteoarthritis,as age advances the risk also increases.
2. Gender, females are at increased risk for osteoarthritis. The role of sex hormone is indicated by increased risk after menopause.
3. Heritability, osteoarthritis is a heritable disease. Heretability varies depending on the joint. This is high in hip osteoarthritis.
4. Local factors in the joint. This will lead to uneven distribution of weight and increased focal stress example malalignment across the joint, increased mobility of joints, congenital joint abnormality.
5. Obesity increases the load across the joint.

6. Repeated use of joints and injury will cause osteoarthritis especially in sportsmen.
7. Fracture and trauma increases the risk.
8. Cigarette smoking.
9. Occupation - Certain occupation is at risk for this condition. 
   (a) Miners - osteoarthritis of hip, knee, shoulder.
   (b) Cotton workers - hand osteoarthritis.
   (c) Farmer - hip osteoarthritis
10. Osteo arthritis can  also develop secondary to certain disease.

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